Judging from the sitter’s dress—a collar with lace trim and a hairstyle of loose curls—we can date this painting between 1625 and 1650, about when both these styles were in fashion. Flat collars would be replaced by the neckcloth, a strip of lace or muslin twisted around the neck and tied at the throat. In the latter half of the century, natural hair would be traded for wigs.

Francesco Curradi, a Florentine draftsman and painter, appears to have reused this sitter’s face for figures in other paintings, including the archangel Michael in the Vision of Saint Philip Benizi at the church of Santa Maria dei Servi in Siena. When viewed under ultraviolet light, the painting shows signs of retouching, particularly in the sitter’s original lace collar, which was likely enhanced after losses from age and cleaning.