Athena, the goddess of wisdom, drives a four-horse chariot. The overlapping horses are laboriously rendered with incisions. Athena was also the goddess of defensive warfare, which might connect her with the battle scene on the other side of the vase. Two hoplites (armored foot soldiers) advance over a third who kneels. The warrior on the left carries a Boeotian shield with scooped indentations that allow him to thrust his weapon more effectively while protecting himself.